Credit: © Junjira / Fotolia

Credit: © Junjira / Fotolia

Three to four cups of coffee per day reduces disease risk

Three to four cups of coffee per day reduces disease risk, according to a new study from University of Southampton in the United Kingdom.

Coffee has shown much health benefits lately and is a huge part of the American lifestyle. According to Harvard research, 54 percent of Americans over the age of 18 drink coffee every day.

The beverage used to be very controversial, as some believed that it caused cancer. In June of last year, the World Health Organization (WHO) finally cleared it up once and for all that coffee does not cause cancer.

The Southampton research team examined 201 meta-analyses of existing observational studies, and 17 meta-analyses of clinical trials.

Overall the team found that coffee consumption is “more likely to benefit health than to harm it.”

To be specific, the researchers found that moderate coffee consumption was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and diabetes.

Coffee consumption seems generally safe within usual levels of intake,” write the researchers, “with summary estimates indicating largest risk reduction for various health outcomes at three to four cups a day.”

Three cups of coffee per day lowered the risk of coronary heart disease by 19 percent, and the risk of death from stroke by 30 percent. A high coffee intake was associated with an 18 percent decrease in the risk of developing cancer.

The most significant decrease was in liver cirrhosis, with a 39 percent decreased risk.

The study showing that three to four cups of coffee per day reduces disease risk was published in BMJ.

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1. “Three to Four Cups of Coffee per Day Slash Disease Risk.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 1 Jan. 1970,

2. “Coffee Gets a Clean Bill of Health.” The BMJ, British Medical Journal Publishing Group, 22 Nov. 2017,
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